A bunion is a bone deformity caused by a shift in the bones around the big toe joint. This causes a painful bump that can rub on shoegear and cause pain. Additionally, there may be pain when moving the joint and when walking because the big toe joint is out of alignment. This deformity can be caused by heredity, arthritis, flat feet, trauma, and improper shoegear.
The goal for treating bunions is to relieve the pain and pressure of the deformity and may include the following: wider shoegear, padding, custom made orthotics or arch supports, injections, medications, and surgical correction ( to reallign the bones that are out of place).
A hammer toe is a deformity where the toe is bent at the middle joint, causing it to resemble a hammer. Left untreated, hammertoes can become inflexible, making it difficult to bend the toe. Hammer toes are primarily caused by a muscular imbalance of the toe. People with hammertoes may have corns or an extra layer of hard skin on the top of the middle joint of the toe or on the tip of the toe. Treatment for this condition typically involves wearing shoes with soft, roomy toe boxes, strapping and padding, removal of the corns regularly, and surgery to straighten the toe.